Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Effect of sidaguri and jatropha on tooth microhardness and tooth surface: An in vitro evaluation using CLSM


Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbal alternatives, extract of sidaguri (sida rhombifolia) combine with extract of jatropha sap (jatropha curcas) application on microhardness and morphology of tooth surface. Material and Methods: Twelve upper first premolar teeth were used in this study, prepared to Class I box cavities, and were then allocated into 4 groups (n=3). Group 1-3 were treated groups, applied with combined extracts of a small dose (5 mg), medium dose (25 mg), and high dose (50 mg), while group 4 was the control group. The cavities were restored with composite resin, immersed in artificial saliva, and stored at room temperature for 14 days. The fillings and extracts were removed and cleaned under running tap water. The teeth were cut in a vertical direction towards the apex, sectioned into 1 mm thickness, and evaluated using Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM), then were examined for microhardness test. Results: All treated groups showed significantly lower microhardness than the control group. Tooth porosity was observed, and its extensiveness was affected by doses of extracts. Conclusion: The application of herbal alternatives (extract of sidaguri and jatropha) lowered the microhardness of tooth structure and caused tooth porosities.


  1. Jágr M, Eckhardt A, Pataridis S, et al. Proteomics of human teeth and saliva. Physiol Res 2014;63(Suppl 1): S141-S154.
  2. Shashikiran ND, Subba Reddy VV, Hiremath MC. Estimation of trace elements in sound and carious enamel of primary and permanent teeth by atomic absorption spectrophotometry: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2007;18: 157-162.
  3. Anjum A, Otsuki M, Matin K, et al. Preservation in the liquid media produces alterations in enamel surface properties. J Dent 2009;37: 884-890.
  4. Tanumihadja M, Mattulada IK, Natsir N, et al. Structural assessment of chemical constituent of sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia Linn.) and its ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase. Pesqui Bras Odontopediatria Clin Integr 2019;19: e4773.
  5. Tanumihadja M, Mattulada IK, Natsir N, et al. Potensi kombinasi ekstrak akar sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia L.) dan getah jarak (Jatropha curcas L.) sebagai bahan devitalisasi. ODONTO 2019;6: 14-20.
  6. Taher YA, Samud AM, El-Taher FE, et al. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice. Libyan J Med 2015;10: e28685.
  7. Oswari L, Hidayat R, Fatmawati F, et al. Gambir extract (Uncaria gambir) decreases inflammatory response and increases gastric mucosal integrity in Wistar rats - Model gastritis. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019;7: 3149-3152.
  8. Tanumihardja M, Natsir N, Mattulada IK, et al. Potent anti-inflammatory effect of root of sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia L) on rat periapical lesion model. Int J Toxi Pharm Res 2016;8: 412-415.
  9. Tanumihardja M, Natsir N, Mattulada IK, et al. Pharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida rhombifolia L. roots (Malvaceae). J Chem Pharm Res 2016;8: 770-774.
  10. Mattulada I. SEM images of teeth exposed to jatropha sap (Jatropha curcas Linn). J PDGI 2013;62: 72-75.
  11. Olley RC, Alhaij S, Mohsen BM, et al. Novel Confocal-Laser-Scanning-Microscopy and conventional measures investigating eroded dentine following dentifrice dab-on and brushing abrasion. Heliyon 2020;6: e03282.
  12. Mallya L, Kundabala M, Jathanna V. Confocal LASER scanning microscopy (CLSM) for evaluation of endodontic microflora - A review. Indian J Public Health Res Dev 2019;10: 69-73.
  13. Tonini R, Giovarruscio M, Gorni F, et al. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial properties and smear layer removal/sealer penetration of a novel silver-citrate root canal irrigant. Materials (Basel, Switzerland) 2020;13: e194.
  14. Handayani. Traditional to rational and modern phytopharmaca. Proceeding of Surabaya International Health Conference. Surabaya: NU University of Surabaya; 2017.
  15. Lestari N, Suryatmojo I, Sembiring L. The effect of consuming carbonated drinks on the erosion of the maxillary permanent incisors. SONDE 2018;3: 48-69. (In Indonesia)

How to Cite

Tanumiharja, M., Natsir, N., Mattulada, I. K., Katu, H., Achmad, H., Muslimin, L., Arsyad, H., & Arma, L. H. (2021). Effect of sidaguri and jatropha on tooth microhardness and tooth surface: An in vitro evaluation using CLSM. Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science, 6(2), 80–83.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>